Presenting the LRC's Calculation of the Atomic Spectra of Hydrogen

Tuesday, March 1, 2016 at 01:52PM

Doug

Doug

Last Saturday night, the presentation of the LRC’s first calculation of the atomic spectra of Hydrogen was streamed live on our YouTube channel, LRC Physics. It’s now available here on our website, as part VII of our seven-part series of presentations, making up Lecture 3, called “Scalar Mathematics for Scalar Motion and Scalar Motion for Scalar Physics.”

To say the least, we are quite excited. This is the very breakthrough that enabled the LST community to advance to what was eventually called the old quantum physics and, then, when Bohr’s model of the atom failed for the Helium spectra and Heisenberg, Schrodinger et. al. discovered how to apply the non-commutative mathematics of matrices to the problem, the new quantum mechanics was launched and the rest is history.

K.V.K. Nehru called the inability of the RST community to calculate the observed atomic spectra a “great lacuna” in the theoretical development of the Reciprocal System. In his 2002 paper, “Quantum Mechanical Approach Inevitable?” he suggested that the only course open to us was to use the vector motion wave equation after all. Nothing ever came of it however.

More recently, Ronald Satz published a paper in May of 2012 entitled, “Theory of Atomic Spectra and Ionization Energies,” in which he claimed to explain “both simple and complex spectra.” Nevertheless, I have not been able to verify it’s validity, and I know of no one else who has either. In my case, I find it too difficult and tedious to follow his unfamiliar and cumbersome notation to evaluate it adequately.

Of course, the very existence of the LRC is due to the difference in opinion over Larson’s conclusion that rotational motion can be considered scalar motion of magnitude only. Since the motion of rotation necessarily requires a change of position of something to define it, even the changing position of a rotating linear vibration doesn’t change the fact that such a change does not constitute scalar motion, but vector motion, and, since Satz’s theoretical development follows that of Larson’s, it incorporates the same error, and therefore cannot be considered an RST-based theory of scalar motion.

Consequently, even if he has correctly derived the equations in his paper, it makes no difference in the end, given the concepts behind those equations are vector motion magnitudes, rather than scalar motion magnitudes. It must be understood that scalar motion is not change of position motion, but change of scale motion, or a change of space size over time and a change of time “size” over space.

The foundation of the LRC’s RST-based theoretical development is the three-dimensional progression posited by its first fundamental postulate, where three-dimensional motion, with two reciprocal aspects, space and time, progresses in discrete units; that is, it constitutes an eternal increase of discrete units, and from this 3D progression of space and time, all physical entities and phenomena emerge, as motion, combinations of motion and relations between them.

Plotting the orthogonal increase of these discrete units of space and time, leads naturally and logically to the fundamental entities of observed radiation and matter, only when 3D “direction” reversals are introduced into this uniform progression, as developed in the LRC’s theory.

Formulating these 3D scalar reversals, in a simple closed form equation, shows that the most elementary motion combination, emerging from the theory, consists of a minimum four units of scalar motion. Combining multiple instances of these units, in combinations of four or more units generates various entities of scalar motion, which correspond to the entities of matter found in the first family of the standard model of the LST community’s particle physics.

The properties of motion, inherent in these combinations, relate to one another in exactly the same manner as the observed entities of the standard model; that is, they exist in pairs that have magnitudes of opposite polarity, and each pair is mirrored in a reciprocal, or orthogonal manner.

The various magnitudes of these scalar motion entities fit together in a manner exactly required to form the higher order combinations observed in the corresponding entities of the standard model, which are called bosons and fermions, with the exact number of observed fermions and bosons, each having the correct polarities, dimensions and magnitudes, which not only identify them with the observed entities, but also gives them the properties that permit them to combine in the same manner that the observed entities combine, forming combinations identified with the observed protons and neutrons and electrons of matter observed in the laboratory.

However, this remarkable achievement of the LRC’s theoretical development has been stymied for years by the same “glaring lacuna” Larson’s own development was. Even though the scalar motion combinations corresponding to the observed entities of the standard model easily combine into the elements of the periodic table, we have been unable to calculate the atomic spectra of the elements and show how the observed periods of the periodic table are a consequence of the energy levels of these combinations.

In other words, until now we have not been able to translate the scalar motion magnitudes of these various scalar motion combinations into observed values of conventional units of energy and radiation, which are characteristic of each element, beginning with the first element, Hydrogen.

Now, however, noticing the importance of the number 4 in the LST community’s history of the spectroscopic developments, which formed the foundation of the development of its quantum theory of physics, we have discovered the underlying connection, which has been so elusive.

It turns out that Johannes Rydberg used Johann Balmer’s empirical equation to formulate his own equation, which led to the LST’s Bohr model of the atom. Balmer discovered the important role of the number 4, or 22, in the sequence of rational numbers, which, when multiplied by a constant he had obtained by trial and error, equaled the observed wavelengths of the spectra of Hydrogen.

The trouble is, however, this important role of the number 4 in Balmer’s work has been obscured by the interpretation of the n terms in his and Rydberg’s equations, as simply the electronic energy levels of the Bohr model of the atom. It has been so easy to take for granted that the number, 22, explicit in Balmer’s equation, but disappearing in Rydberg’s reworking and generalizing of its mathematics, is to be identified with the n=2 orbit of the single electron of the Hydrogen atom.

Nevertheless, what really happened is that Rydberg noticed that Balmer’s constant was proportional to the ionization energy limit of Hydrogen. Indeed, it is exactly four times the wavelength of that energy. Consequently, Rydberg simply divided the number 4 by Balmer’s constant and inverted it! Therefore, Rydberg’s constant is nothing more than the inverted wavelength of Hydrogen’s ionization energy.

It’s not that this is a revelation to students of spectroscopy, but for non-specialists, this fact is glossed over in teaching how the Bohr model works and it’s implications have been buried in the history of the development of the LST’s quantum physics, where the emphasis is on the so-called new quantum physics, in which the Bohr model’s electron orbits, based on classical physics, are replaced by the orbitals of the weird physics of probability and the non-commutative mathematics of matrices and wave equations.

Not that the new shouldn’t have replaced the old quantum mechanics. No one is arguing that, but the fact that the number 4, which played such an important part in Balmer’s original work, as a crucial number, working perfectly in an equation for calculating the Hydrogen spectra, might not be tied to the n=2 orbit of an invalidated atomic model, is something that definitely should be considered!

In our scalar motion atomic model there are no electrons changing positions, so not only are they not rotating around the nucleons, in a classical, planetary-like orbit, with definite angular and spin momentum, at any given time, they are also not waves of probabilities either, based on equivalents of magnitudes of rotation, in moving or standing waves.

Again, rotation is just as much a vector motion as is linear motion. It’s only linear motion in two dimensions, as defined by changing sines and cosines. Sure, the probability of finding an electron in a given position along a classical orbit is 100 percent assured, as WWI fighter pilots soon learned from the Germans, but just because a particle is also a wave, whose position and momentum are mutually exclusive properties, doesn’t necessarily imply that the electron actually changes positions relative to the nucleons!

It’s a fact that it could also be changing size, as an oscillating volume of space and time.

If we stop and consider the position of a point, before it expands into a ball, we recognize that its position is clearly defined, but subsequently that position becomes undefined, as the radius of the ball increases along with the volume of the ball and the surface area of its sphere.

How is the position of the point to be determined at some time t, during its 3D expansion? The fact is that any location on its surface will be a valid location, since they are all located at the same distance from the origin, but when such a location is detected and considered to be a change of the point’s position, the probability of it being a given point on the surface decreases as the surface area grows.

Thus, without the knowledge of 3D scalar oscillations, the LST mathematicians and physicists evidently have done the only thing they knew how to do: They have constructed a rotational analog of 3D scalar oscillation and called it wave mechanics, giving birth to the new quantum physics, and all the angst that has surrounded it ever since.

Will we here at the LRC be able to progress from the calculations of the Hydrogen spectra, in our scalar motion model, to the calculations of the Helium spectra and beyond? I can’t say at this point, but I am confident, given that the theory yields bosons and fermions, and that the bosons consist of W minus and plus bosons, perfectly explaining beta minus and beta plus decay, while preserving the scalar motion of the entities involved, and that the theory’s fermions consists of quarks and leptons, which fit together perfectly as protons, neutrons and electrons, to form the observed elements of the periodic table.

To say the least, my confidence has now grown by leaps and bounds, given that the atomic spectra relations of these combinations of scalar motion based bosons and fermions have now been found to follow just as rigidly and inevitably as the previous ones have.

The only other explanation that I can see is that the fact that this rigid logical and mathematical development, of the consequences of the Reciprocal System postulates, as far as we have been able to carry them out, corresponds exactly to observation, is just a coincidence.

Who’s going to assert that at this point?

Article originally appeared on LRC (http://www.lrcphysics.com/).

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