## The Structure of the Physical Universe

**<<Material Sector Formation** **Cosmic Sector Formation>>**

**Unit Progression Ratio**

The universal progression of space over time is as infinite as the number one is infinite; that is, every conceivable number is contained in the number 1, when it is interpreted as 1/1 = 1, because n/n = 1, and n ranges from 1 to infinity. Thus, an infinite quantity of numbers of the form (1 + n)/(1 + n) is contained in the unit progression ratio.

**Discuss the UPR Discription**

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**Larson’s RSt Concept:**Larson precisely describes the unit progression ratio in the five statements below:

1) “We define motion as the relation between two uniformly progressing reciprocal quantities, space and time.”

2) “Motion, as defined, is measured in terms of speed, the scalar magnitude of the relation between space and time.”

3) “By reason of the postulated reciprocal relation between space and time, each individual unit of motion is a relation between one unit of space and one unit of time, a motion at unit speed.”

4) “We define theprimary motionsas those which can exist independently of the existence of motions of other types.”

5) “According to our definition, motion involves a uniformprogressionof both space and time. We define a point, or segment, on the line of the space progressionat a given timeas a physical location in space.”

**Discuss Larson’s RSt Concept**

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**The LRC Concept: **

The LRC concept of the unit progression ratio is nearly the same as Larson’s, except for statement number four, and the second sentence of statement number five. We take exception to the definition of *primary motion, *as a subset of scalar motion, and we maintain that the concept of “a point, or segment, on the line of the space progression,” is erroneous, because a progression of scalars, existing in three dimensions, does not constitute a “line,” but only a series of increasing quantities, or magnitudes, each value representing a magnitude that is either greater or less than any other magnitude in the series.

To define a physical location in space, at a given time, as the series progresses, requires a point of reference to some other value in the series. For instance, space location x in the progression has no meaning except when related to location x+n, or x-n; that is, a physical location in the progression is indeterminate, until a second location in the progression is identified.

The best way to understand the difference between the scalar motion of the Reciprocal System of Physical Theory (RST), and the vector motion of the legacy system of physical theory (LST), is to consider the world line graph. For example, we can use the world line graph to explain special relativity, which shows how time slows down for an observer of a clock moving vectorially, but then we can use the same graph to show how the scalar expansion of time is created for an observer of a stationary clock.

In figure 1 below, the clock moving relative to the observer appears to move slower, because its one-dimensional change in vector space, during an interval of time, affects the measurement of its scalar time as shown. The greater the change of vector space in a given interval, the greater the effect.

**Figure 1.** Effect of Vector Motion on Time Measurement Between Inertial Systems

However, the LST has no concept of changing space *in a given inertial system*. In the RST, on the other hand, in any given inertial system, there are two clocks in operation, not just one. One clock is the usual time clock, and the other is a similar space clock. With both clocks increasing uniformly, the rate of increase of space|time, the scalar motion within a given inertial system, is at the unit progression ratio, 1:1. Yet, when either the space clock, or the time clock, oscillates, at a given location in the progression of the inertial system, there is no net increase of that clock, displacing the UPR from 1:1 to 1:2, or to 2:1, respectively, resulting in a linear increase of time, or of space, at that location, as shown in figure 2 below:

**Figure 2.** Effect of Space or Time Oscillation in Scalar Progression Creates Physical Locations

In the case of the RST, the motion under consideration is not the motion of a moving object, as it must be in the LST, but a logical outcome of the system’s postulates. Thus, the motion of the RST is prior to the motion of the LST, in the sense that inertial systems, the relative vector motions of which are studied in the LST, originate from the scalar motion of the RST. A spatial inertial system is created by oscillations in the space aspect of the progression, while a temporal inertial system is created by oscillations in the time aspect of the progression.

Consequently, while the domain of LST research is the interaction of physical entities in motion, or between inertial systems, the domain of RST research is the scalar motion of entities at rest within an inertial system. Thus, the LST domain becomes a subset of the RST domain.

(to be continued)

**Discuss the LRC Concept**

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**The LST Concept:**Currently, the concept of scalar motion does not exist in the theories of the LST community.

**Discuss the LST Concept**——————————————————————————————————————————-

**UPR Discussion Forum:**

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